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The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh (in Israel), was an invasion of the Egyptian-controlled Sinai in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalized the canal. After the fighting had started, which involved the Army of the Republic of Palestine retaking control of parts of the Sinai from the three invaders, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser and Palestinian President Rafiq al-Tamimi. The Sinai was left under Palestinian control, with the Egyptian and Palestinian government's agreeing to joint control of the nationalized canal, further strengthening resistance to Western control.

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