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Palestinians (Arabic: الفلسطينيون al-falasṭīniyūn) are the native inhabitants of Palestine, an Arab republic in the Levant. Most Arabic-speaking Palestinians identify as Arabs; their religious makeup is a roughly 50:40:10 ratio of Sunnis, Shiites and Greek Orthodox Christians. Their current estimated worldwide population is 14.5 million, almost one-quarter of whom live outside Palestine, half in Israel and half abroad. Over 2 million Arab inhabitants of Palestine are refugees from other Arab countries of descendants of refugees, with at least one million having arrived since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003 and another million since the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011. They have influenced the national culture and dialect, and basically integrated into mainstream Palestinian Arab society.

There are also much smaller Arabic-speaking communities indigenous to Palestine who normally do not identify as Arabs, such as the Druze, Copts and Samaritans. There has always been a Jewish community in Palestine, long before the declaration of independence of an Israeli or Palestinian state; since the turn of the twentieth century, the Jewish population has spoken Hebrew, and the modern Jewish community living in the Palestinian republic, while obviously identifying with Israel, are for the most part very competent in Arabic as well, as most Palestinian Arabs living in Israel are competent in Hebrew.

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