The Muslim Brotherhood (Arabic: جماعة الاخوان المسلمين jamā'at al-ikhwān al-muslimīn; lit. "Society of the Muslim Brothers") is a transnational Islamist charity and political organisation, founded in Egypt in 1928 by schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna. It has sponsored many political parties and candidates at elections in different countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The Brotherhood is experiences periodic crackdowns in many countries, and is banned outright in many others; in Palestine and Syria it has been banned outright as a political party and listed as a terrorist organization since a series of violent clashes with those states' governments in the early 1980s, and membership in or material support for the group can land an individual up to 10 years in prison. Even possessing group literature is suspicious and can lead to arrest: the Brotherhood has been the primary organisation behind the anti-government insurgency in many countries since its formation, which, other than the violence of the 1980s, has remained a mostly passive dissident movement. It was outlawed in Egypt following the 2013 coup d'etat, which resulted in the ouster of the democratically elected Mohammad Morsi, the first Muslim Brotherhood candidate to hold the office of head of state, and his administration's replacement with a military regime.