The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Russian: Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации, КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii, KPRF) is the ruling political party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and a republican-level branch of the All-Union Communist Party, the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union, of which the RSFSR is the largest and most politically dominant constituent republic.

From the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922 until 1990, there was no AUCP national branch for the Russian SFSR, with all members of national party branches eligible to be elected to all-union organs, but with the Russian government under the direct all-union jurisdiction of the Party. In July 1990, during the early stages of postwar reconstruction, a new party law was ratified at the 28th Party Congress which required all party members to belong to a particular national branch, and all Russian members of the AUCP were admitted to the newly formed Communist Party of the Russian Federation. The change was mostly cosmetic, with little if any alteration to the general structure of the AUCP and balance of power between nationalities.

The 21 autonomous republics of the RSFSR already had their own national party branches subordinate to the AUCP, which following the 1990 changes were subordinated to the CPRF which in turn answer so on the all-union level. As the jurisdiction of the national party branches of autonomous republics is clearly defined, this change similarly had little if any effect on the branches' autonomy and normal internal practices.

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