The Mount Zion War of 1994 (Arabic: حرب جبل صهيون العام 1994 ḥarb jabal sahyūn al-‘ām alf wa tis‘at mi’ah wa arba‘ah wa tis‘ūn) was the first of two brief armed conflicts fought between Israel and Palestine during the mid-1990s. The war began on 2 March 1994, during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, over a dispute regarding the position of the under-construction wall separating Jewish and Arab neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem near Mount Zion, hence the name. A ceasefire agreement was reached on 21 May 1994, after almost three months of fighting and a Palestinian strategic failure to liberate East Jerusalem from Israeli forces. The agreement did little to address the root cause of the conflict, and Israel remained in control of East Jerusalem after the signing of the agreement, resulting in the outbreak of another namesake war less than two years later. The two Mount Zion Wars, together with the civil conflict and political unrest which preceded and interluded them, are known officially in Palestine as the Second Intifada (الإنتفاضة الثانية al-intifāḍah ath-thānīyah) in reference to the 1976–1979 Sinai War, known officially as the First Intifada, which ended the Israeli occupation of Palestine.
The conflict escalated very quickly, as relations between the two nations had recently deteriorated more than the already-tense norm of the nineties. Both countries' air forces engaged each other, ultimately leading to the grounding of the technologically inferior Palestinian Air Force after less than a week of dogfighting. Over 100,000 civilians were killed in Palestine, mostly due to Israeli air raids and rockets; Israel's civilian casualty count was around 21,000, much lower due to that nation's "Iron Dome" missile defense system. Military casualties were split quite evenly, with 5506 Palestinian personnel dead and 4988 Israeli dead. Due to Palestine's poor performance in sheltering its civilian population from air raids, Palestine suffered almost three times as many civilian casualties as Israel, and a massive expansion of national air defence systems as well as bunker complexes and evacuation strategies was initiated after the war.